||Managing the Police|
Please find main points for our discussion for the next seminar focused on issues of management of the police services.
1. The police: definition, main functions and the place in the governmental structure.
2. Historical development of the police services in differents states.
3. 'Broken Windows' and 'Zero Tolerance' concepts: pro and cons.
4. Police powers: crime control versus human rights protection.
5. 'Right to Silence' in different countries. Miranda warning.
6. Policing the police: issues of the police accountability.
Students are encouraged to prepare
short report focused on different issues of police activites
(no more than 5-6 min).
Police are agents or agencies, usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with police departments of a state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility.
- law enforcement agency
- Garda Síochána
There are several types of military police services:
Gendarmeries are military force which polices a civilian population
Provost services are military police services that work within the armed forces.
Constabulary is a civilian police force trained and organized along military lines.
...The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be clearly informed that he or she has the right to remain silent, and that anything the person says may be used against that person in court; the person must be clearly informed that he or she has the right to consult with an attorney and to have that attorney present during questioning, and that, if he or she is indigent, an attorney will be provided at no cost to represent him or her.
осуществление полицейских функций с нулевой толерантностью; агрессивный стиль поддержания социального порядка, предполагающий аресты даже за незначительные проявления асоциального поведения
The precise origins of term are obscure, but it has become associated with policing techniques used most famously in New York City and other parts of North America.
In New York, police have used computers to anaylse crime hot spots street by street and crime by crime before introducing a zero tolerance approach.
It has been used in the UK in the King's Cross area of London, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough and Strathclyde.
The strategy is based on the 'Broken Windows' theory - first developed by two American academics, George Kelling and James Wilson, in 1983.
According to their theory, there is a link between disorder and crime - a view shared by Labour politicians. The thesis goes: visible signs of decay - litter, broken windows, graffiti, abandoned housing - signals public disinterest.
Fear of crime is greatest in these neighbourhoods, which prompts 'respectable' community members to leave.
This undermines the community's ability to maintain order and decline follows.
Reasoning that it is easier to prevent a neighbourhood's slide into crime than trying to rescue it, the theory demands that even minor misdemeanours must be pursued with the same vigour as serious crimes.
What are initial results?
Figures for New York have been well trumpeted. Since 1993, major crime in that city has fallen by 39% and murder has fallen by 49%.
In the UK, results have been similar. Det Supt Mallon managed to deliver on his promise to cut crime by 20% in 18 months - figures for the three months to February 1997 showed a 22% fall.
Det Supt Mallon also achieved these kinds of results in his previous job in Hartlepool where he oversaw a reduction in crime of 38% in 28 months.
Criticisms of zero tolerance
- There are negative consequences of aggressive policing with accusations of heavy-handedness by police
- There are other reasons for falling crime in New York. Fewer take violence-inducing crack cocaine while many of those responsible for committing crimes in the 1980s are now in prison
- Crime has also fallen in areas without zero tolerance policing
- The long-term effects are unknown. It works well in densely populated areas with high policing levels and large amounts of petty crime. But where the population is dispersed or the crime rate is low, it may have little effect. And in areas of high racial tension, the policy might leave locals feeling victimised